Energy & the Environment

Sustainability / Life Cycle Assessment

The Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance (SPFA) completed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of open and closed-cell spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation in buildings to quantify cradle-to-end of life across the entire life cycle. The LCA was conducted to assure builders, designers, and consumers that the products are indeed part of a responsible and effective energy and environmental construction solution.

The life cycle approach to evaluating the energy and environmental impacts of products is critical in understanding these impacts and for developing environmental improvement strategies. For SPF insulation, the use phase energy savings and avoided environmental impacts result from a high R-value and reduced air infiltration. These positive impacts significantly offset the impacts associated with manufacturing SPF, which are quantified using a holistic life cycle assessment. Considering only single ttributes (such as recycled or renewable material content), or only the impacts from the anufacturing phase of a product creates a limited and technically flawed perspective on the environmental impact of SPF.

The LCA results show that spray foam products save significantly more energy and prevent more environmental impacts during the life of the insulation in a building compared to the relatively minor energy and environmental impacts associated with making the insulation.

These findings have been reviewed, assessed and validates through a rigorous process conducted by Underwriters Laboratory Environment (ULe) and published in a series of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) on SPF.

Both the LCA and EPD may qualify for partial LEED credits on SPF projects utilizing the LEED system.


In 2013, SPFA coordinated an industry-level Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and developed an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) for generic SPF formulations that include open-cell insulation and closed-cell insulation and roofing SPF materials using HFC-based blowing agents. The LCA followed the requirements of ISO-14040 and 14044, and the EPD was developed under ISO-14025, using the 2011-2016 North American Insulation Product Category Rules (PCR) available from Underwriters Laboratories Environment (ULe). The results of this work can be found below:

2013 Life Cycle Assessment Study (full version): This is the full SPFA LCA for SPF for the intended audience of energy, environmental and sustainability professionals looking to better understand the details of the quantified “cradle to grave” evaluation of SPF. The LCA was conducted by independent, third-party, professional LCA practitioner with expertise in this field: PE International.

2013 Life Cycle Assessment (summary): This is a short summary report of the SPFA LCA and intended for use by our members in their desire to share the information with sustainability professionals, customers, prospective customers, and other stakeholders in the industry. This report includes use-phase benefits of SPF insulation, developed by Sustainable Solutions Corporation.

2013 Environmental Product Declaration (EPD): This is a series of product descriptions and EPD reports produced by the Program Operator, ULe in conjunction with SPFA that review, assess and validate the energy and environmental claims found in the SPF Life Cycle Assessment. EPDs are used environmental and sustainability experts, architects and other professional customers looking for accurate product information. These documents can be found on the UL SPOT website here.

2018 - 2023

In 2018, SPFA completed the requisite five-year update for the existing LCA and EPD for using three generic SPF formulations that include open-cell insulation, HFC-based closed-cell insulation and HFC-based roofing SPF materials. In this update, a new product class for low-pressure two-component closed cell SPF was added. In addition, foams using HFO-based blowing agents were included (closed-cell, roofing and low-pressure SPF), resulting in a total of seven SPF product classes. The LCA followed ISO-14040 and 14044 requirements, and the EPD was developed under ISO-14025, using the updated 2018-2023 North American Insulation Product Category Rule (PCR) available from ULe.

2018 Life Cycle Assessment Study (full version): This is the full SPFA LCA for SPF for the intended audience of energy, environmental and sustainability professionals looking to better understand the details of the quantified “cradle to grave” evaluation of SPF. The LCA was conducted by independent, third-party, professional LCA practitioner with expertise in this field: The LCA was conducted by independent, third-party, professional LCA practitioner thinkstep (formerly PE International)

2018 Life Cycle Assessment (summary): Coming in 2019 will be a short summary report of the SPFA LCA and intended for use by our members in their desire to share the information with sustainability professionals, customers, prospective customers, and other stakeholders in the industry. This report will include use-phase benefits of SPF insulation.

2018 Environmental Product Declarations (EPD): There are now two EPDs for SPF developed and reviewed by ASTM, the EPD Program Operator in conjunction with SPFA that review, assess and validate the energy and environmental claims found in the updated SPF LCA. Particularly of use by environmental and sustainability experts, architects and other professional customers looking for accurate product information. There are now two separate EPDs. One EPD includes open-cell SPF and closed-cell, roofing and low-pressure SPF using HFC blowing agents, and the second EPD includes open-cell SPF and closed-cell, roofing and low-pressure SPF using low-GWP HFO blowing agents.

Energy Efficiency

According to a 2002 US Department of Energy report, heating and cooling costs amount to 50-70% of the energy used in the average American home. With the costs of heating and cooling going up, this is a concern of most home and building owners. Most of us know to turn off the lights to conserve energy but don't think to look to insulate our homes/buildings to more efficiently heat and cool them.

Builders and architects are now turning to spray polyurethane foam (SPF) to curb these problems. SPF is one of the most efficient insulation materials on the market today for roof and wall insulation, insulated windows and doors, and air barrier sealants.

Why is SPF Energy Efficient?

  • Polyurethane foams have one of the highest insulating R-values per inch of all the available products on the market today. With typical values ranging from 3.5 to 6.0 per inch, it is possible to maximize efficiency, increase space utilization and reduce operating costs, while having thinner walls and a lower profile roofs.
  • Studies show that increasing the thickness of your roof insulation by 1" or more above the ASHRAE required thickness significantly reduces your energy costs.
  • SPF sealants that are applied to cracks around window frames expand to fill energy-wasting (escaping) gaps around the window, which increases your buildings energy efficiency.
  • Energy studies performed by Texas A & M on their own roofs show the energy cost reductions obtained by applying SPF to more than 8 million square feet of roofing paid for the cost of the retrofit in a little over three years.
  • Cool roofs (using reflective plastic coverings over SPF insulated roofs) bounce sunlight and radiant heat away from a building, helping the structure stay cool and reducing energy use for cooling.

Sprayfoam and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a very important topic in recent years, particularly as buildings have become tighter as a result of air-sealing and energy efficiency measures employed by the construction, building science, architectural, efficiency, code and sustainability communities.  One of the reasons SPF has become such a popular solution is because of the high-performing combined features of high R-Value and air-sealing.  Both of these features are in high demand by customers and driven by building and energy codes.  Interestingly these features apply to both roofing (the forgotten fifth wall) and insulation.

Using SPF to seal and insulate a building from air-leakage, a common problem lesser products struggle to solve, means a noticeable, more comfortable and consistent indoor environment for the occupants.  It also means that outdoor pollutants and allergens infiltrating the home can be reduced, possibly improving conditions for allergy sufferers. 

Although these improvements to the building likely mean a more efficient operation for heating and cooling systems, allowing the owner to “right size the mechanicals” and further improve the building’s efficiency, it also means that mechanical ventilation becomes more important.  Keeping pollutants, cold/hot/humid air, and allergens outside means that the conditioned space (interior) of the building needs good, consistent, mechanically-produced air-flow to avoid the possibility of unexpected odors from people, carpeting, furniture, or other building products being trapped inside.  To realize the best performance, occupant comfort, and satisfaction look at these combined elements as a system, and make sure that the building’s HVAC is providing regular, adequate and consistent ventilation.

It is essential that any combustible gas appliances, such as water heaters, furnaces, etc. are properly vented to the outside of the building.  This is the case with any structure for the safety of occupants, but particularly in the case of a highly insulated and air-sealed building, to avoid the build-up of Carbon Monoxide (CO) fumes.  For the additional safety of occupants in any building, especially residential, SPFA recommends using at a minimum a plug-in CO detector in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.  Use of the CO detector, along with other fire alarm, security or building safety systems should be among the suite of common practices by all building owners.

Always use a professional, experienced and trained SPF contractor and consider consulting with a BPI Analyst, RESNET Hers-Rater, or other energy and environmental professional when making decisions that can result in substantial changes to your building’s operation and performance.

Energy Star

ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy helping home and building owners save money and protect the environment through energy efficient products and practices. In the home, energy efficient choices can help families save about a third on their energy bill with similar savings of greenhouse gas emissions, without sacrificing features, style or comfort.

Homes that earn the ENERGY STAR must meet guidelines for energy efficiency set by the EPA. ENERGY STAR qualified homes are at least 15% more energy efficient than homes built to the 2004 International Residential Code. ENERGY STAR qualified homes can include a variety of energy-efficient features, such as effective insulation, high performance windows, tight construction and ducts, efficient heating and cooling equipment and ENERGY STAR qualified lighting and appliances.

For more information, log on to

Federal Tax Incentives

Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) will enable existing homeowners, commercial building owners, builders, and manufactures of new homes to take advantage of tax credits available as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. A tax credit is different from a tax deduction in that it reduces the amount of income tax you have to pay versus reducing the amount of income subject to tax. 

More recently, SPFA worked with the Energy Efficient Tax Credit Industry Coalition, a consortium of industry and private interests to have extended the Federal Residential Energy Efficiency Tax Credit.  This provision originally expired at the end of 2011.  The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 retroactively renewed this tax credit effective January 1, 2012, expiring again on December 31, 2013.  Any qualified equipment installed in 2012 or 2013 is eligible for this credit. As in previous years, the cumulative maximum amount of tax credit that can be claimed by a taxpayer in all years combined is $500. If a taxpayer has already claimed a tax credit of $500 for purchases made in any previous year, they are ineligible for additional tax credits for any new equipment purchases.

Be sure to discuss any possible tax or financial incentives with your professional SPF contractor, the manufacturer of the SPF product, your local or municipal utility, state energy efficiency organization, or a BPI or RESNET auditor.  With correctly-installed SPF, customers get the performance they pay for.  Premium performance and reduced energy bills from efficiencies mean that customers will start seeing a payback right away.  But incentives are a great way to start saving even sooner by reducing your first-costs of the project.

For more information on this and other tax incentives, consult the following helpful links.

Adverse Weather Performance

SPF roofing systems have exceptional sustainability characteristics. They save energy, are resistant to high winds, protect the substrate against damage from hail and wind driven debris, and are renewable (in many cases reusable rock aggregate, recycled roofing material injected into the coatings, and other renewable materials can be used to complement the SPF roof).  SPF has proven durable during recent hurricanes, during hail storms, and other adverse weather conditions.


RICOWI (Roofing Industry's Committee on Weather Issues) is a non-profit organization that works to identify and address important technical issues related to the cause of wind and hail damage.  SPFA is a founding member of this organization and has done work in the past to help coordinate and execute research after major weather-related incidents.  RICOWI's research and investigation after these events has shed quantifiable light on the durability of spray foam roofing. For more information on their findings, please contact RICOWI or SPFA Technical Services






ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria for Spray-Applied Foam Plastic Insulation (AC-377)

Prior to 2008, the International Code Council Evaluation Service (ICC-ES) maintained acceptance criteria for SPF as part of AC-12 Acceptance Criteria for Foam Plastic Insulation.  Due to performance, application and manufacturing characteristics of SPF being different from that of other foam plastic insulation, the SPF industry, through SPFA, worked with ICC-ES to craft a separate acceptance criteria. This new acceptance criteria, AC-377 Spray-Applied Foam Plastic Insulation, approved in 2008, would eventually allow for the SPF industry to differentiate the unique performance aspects of spray foam, and demonstrate its compliance-points easily to the building code community. A copy of AC-377 may be purchased from the ICC-ES website here.


Since 2008, the SPF industry has worked through SPFA with ICC-ES and many external industry stakeholders to modify, update and create new content within AC-377 to keep up with the product, its performance and applications.

On June 3rd, 2009, the ICC-ES approved another change to AC-377, reflecting the industry's increased focus upon fire safety and testing, to modify the fire test procedure for alternative ignition barrier assemblies.  Read the summary of changes, projected milestones and sunset dates, and other background on the project also linked at the bottom of this page (ICC-ES June09 Outcome Summary Fnl.pdf).

The ICC-ES Committee meets up to three times a year to review proposed changes to AC-377.  Commonly acceptance criteria undergo changes on a regular basis to reflect the advances in safety, performance and product development, so it is imperative to maintain awareness and monitor the ICC-ES agenda for upcoming meetings.  The ICC-ES webpage for these meetings is available online here.

Click here to go back to the SPFA Building Code webpage.

Related Documents

SPF and cPVC Pipes and Fittings

Spray Polyurethane Foam and cPVC Pipes and Fittings- Research Project Update

In January 2009, the building construction community questioned the compatibility between spray polyurethane foams and pipes and fittings made with cPVC.  It is important to note we are not aware of any cPVC failure that was a result of a chemical incompatibility with properly applied SPF.  Two studies have been recently completed that address these questions.  The first study, sponsored by SPFA and Lubrizol, a leading supplier of cPVC resins, evaluated the chemical compatibility and simple thermal compatibility on unpressurized pipe and fittings between a wide range of SPF products (low density, medium density, and one component foam) and cPVC products made with Lubrizol resins.  This comprehensive testing program demonstrated that no environmental stress cracking of the cPVC is caused by the SPF products tested.  A copy of the technical paper, Industry Study of Compatibility of Spray Polyurethane Foam with CPVC -Part II v2, can be downloaded here.  In addition, a summary statement on the results of this chemical compatibility research from Mr. Jim Paschal, a PVC pipe technical expert, can also be downloaded here

The second separate study, performed in cooperation with Lubrizol and a SPFA member foam supplier, evaluated more extensively the effects of exothermic temperatures from both low-density (LD) and medium-density (MD) when applied to a variety of cPVC pipe diameters and thicknesses.  This study shows that exothermic heating of pressurized cPVC pipes should not be an issue if this suppliers LD foam is applied at 6” or less per pass, and MD foam is applied at 2” or less per pass over any Lubrizol cPVC pipe or fitting product.  In addition, this exotherm study has provided a simple test method for foam suppliers to evaluate individual products for exotherm compatibility.  Lubrizol issued a statement on the Lubrizol website in regard to the outcomes of both projects.

Related Documents

Technical Information

SPFA engages in various technical activities on behalf of its members. These activities range from research and development on fire testing or Life Cycle Assessments (LCA), to consideration of building science as it relates to SPF, chemical health and safety, installation practice and techniques, building codes and standards and many other issues of relevance to sprayfoam insulation and roofing professionals, as well as the manufacturers and distributors of the products and services.

Facilitated by our expert staff, the majority of technical work is completed by one of several technically-oriented committees populated by member volunteers in SPFA. Time is always short in supply for volunteers and SPFA greatly appreciates the sacrifices and commitments our committee members make to do the work of the industry.  In many cases that work, if appropriate, is published in our SPFA TechDocs (technical documents), as a Tech Tip, or as a stand-alone publication highlighting the information generated by a particular effort.  The purpose of these documents is to share the results of this work with members and other stakeholders in the industry to increase the understanding, acceptance, and proper use of sprayfoam insulation and roofing.

In 2015, SPFA completely reformatted all existing AY documents using consistent format.  This new format for the SPFA TechDocs places each document in to one of four categories for easy reference and identification: Roofing, Insulation, Specialty and General.  In many cases, the content of the old AY documents remain unchanged.  It should be noted that all documents using the 'AY-XXX' numbering scheme are now replaced with a new numbering scheme of 'SPFA-XXX'.


SPFA Technical Committees


Building Envelope Committee (BEC)

The Building Envelope Committee is involved in all technical issues relating to SPF insulation products, focusing on installation and building science research.
Chair: Mac Sheldon, Sheldon Consulting, LLC (email Mac)

Roofing Committee (RC)

The Roofing Committee is involved in all technical issues relating to SPF roofing and coating products, focusing on installation and inspection.
Chair: Roger Morrison, Deer Ridge Consulting (email Roger)

Safety Committee (SC)

The Safety Committee is involved in all issues relating to chemical and general jobsite health and safety.
Co-Chairs: Chris King, Anchor Insulation & Becky Karam, IBP (email Chris & Becky)

Technical Oversight Committee (TOC)

The Technical Oversight Committee provides review of all SPFA technical documents to assure accuracy and industry consensus.
Chair: Roger Morrison, Deer Ridge Consulting (email Roger)

SPFA Technical Document Library

SPFA Helpline (800-523-6154)

  • SPFA technical staff hosts a helpline for questions (not addressed by FAQs) from SPF contractors, builders, architects, code officials, and building/homeowners.
  • Typical response times from 0-72 hours. Inquiries are encouraged instead via email for easy tracking and off-hours repsonse. (Email Technical Support)

SPFA believes that the path to a healthful, safe, high-quality and performing SPF installation travels through the hands of a knowledgeable, trained, experienced, and ideally PCP-certified professional contractor.